Social sexnetwork from Bear

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Social sexnetwork from Bear

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The social networks in which YBMSM are embedded are generally understood to be critical factors in understanding their vulnerability. show that network features play a more ificant role in predicting engagement in sex behaviors than prevention behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings for HIV prevention intervention efforts.

This socio-environmental perspective stresses that both prevention and risk behaviors, like getting tested for HIV or engaging in condomless sex, are often incubated in networked milieus through processes of peer influence J. Kelly et al.

Social sexnetwork from Bear

For most young adults, online social-networking sites SNS — i. As young adults spend increasing amounts of time online, a new wave of digital public health research has been ushered in Capurro et al. Furthermore, little attention has been paid to understanding how SNS networks factor into a larger and richer suite of online and offline relationships theorized to be associated with critical HIV-related behaviors. Our statistical models control for individual and structural factors known to be related to HIV prevention engagement and HIV-related sex behaviors.

Interest in contextual factors related to HIV has grown considerably in recent years and has yielded research that enables a better understanding of the network mechanisms of HIV prevention and risk Fujimoto et Social sexnetwork from Bear. Epidemiological studies tend to highlight how sexual contact networks function as engines of viral transmission Friedman et al. Meanwhile, socio-behavioral research tends to not only emphasize the way in which social networks function as transmitters of information and Social sexnetwork from Bear J.

As YMSM increasingly turn to the Internet to seek community and interact with peers, interest in understanding the link between HIV risk and online social networks has mounted. To date, much of this work adopts a behavioral surveillance approach, focusing on MSM who use online dating applications e. Young et al. Although some of this work has maintained an emphasis on partner-seeking behaviors in these networks Buhi et al.

For decades, social influence research has underscored the role of formal and informal peer groups — such as friendships, schoolmates, and peers who meet at entertainment venues such as bars — for norm formation and informal social control, which are known mechanisms of HIV risk- and prevention-oriented behaviors Friedman et al. For example, studies of adolescent SNS users have demonstrated that the topics adolescents discuss with their peers and the photos they share are important predictors of their actual HIV risk and protective behaviors S.

Still, others have investigated network atures of emerging behavioral norms by focusing on relational clusters of sexual risk behavior in SNS peer networks. For example, Moreno, Brockman, Rogers, and Christakis showed that adolescents who posted explicit sexual references were more likely to have online friends who did the same, while L.

What remains to be explored, however, is how normative features of online social networks — like the degree to which YMSM are connected with other MSM and the types of topics they discuss in Facebook groups — impact HIV prevention and sex behavior engagement relative to: 1 features of other, more well-studied sex partner or support networks; and 2 non-network factors that lie at individual and structural levels.

Social sexnetwork from Bear

To this end, we adopt a social epidemiological perspective Rhodes et al. Conceptual framework for an environmental perspective on the production of HIV prevention and sex behavior outcomes adapted from Rhodes, Singer, Bourgois, Friedman, and Strathdee, As Figure 1 depicts, the micro environmental level includes the individual-level factors known to impede or facilitate HIV prevention and sex behavior engagement, for example socio-demographics Mimiaga et al.

Meanwhile, at the macro environmental level are the factors that influence HIV-related behaviors through more distal economic and social structural vulnerabilities, like health insurance coverage Mimiaga et al. From this perspective, the extent to which an individual is at risk for HIV or protected from it depends on where they are located within a given network i.

For example, a centrally located individual in a high risk sexual contact network may be at greater risk of viral exposure, while an individual who has close friends who encourage condom use may experience normative pressure to engage in prevention practices.

In Figure 2we exemplify what relational multiplexity looks like at the ego-network level through the lens of a hypothetical ego or study respondent and his connections to 12 identified peers and 8 Facebook groups. Dyadic multiplexity — when two individuals interact in more than one relational context — is shown by the presence of multiple ties between ego and a peer. For example, the relationship between ego and peer Social sexnetwork from Bear is the highest level of multiplexity, as they interact as confidants, sex partners, and Facebook friends. A hypothetical multiplex egocentric network.

The egocentric network is comprised of an Ego, or study respondent, black circletheir identified peers gold circlesand their identified Facebook groups pink squares. In total, ego has 4 confidants, 3 sex partners, 10 Facebook friends, and 8 Facebook group affiliations. Dyadic multiplexity — when two individuals interact in more than one relational context — is shown by the presence of multiple ties between the ego and a peer.

As described in work L. The analysis featured here draws from data collected at Wave 2 of the study. Additionally, it provides us with an estimation method for obtaining parameter estimates of the target population. Each respondent was given up to six vouchers to recruit others who met the same eligibility criteria. Candidate participants were eligible to be interviewed if they: 1 self-identified as African American or Black; 2 were ased male at birth; 3 were between 16 and 29 years Social sexnetwork from Bear age inclusive ; 4 reported oral or anal sex with a male within the past 24 months; and 5 were willing and able to provide informed consent at the time of the study visit.

Sampling procedures resulted in a baseline sample of YBMSM, of which were retained at Wave 2 of the study, which is the cross-sectional data used for this analysis. Respondents completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included modules pertaining to demographics, sexual health and other sex behaviors, and relational information about their personal confidant and sexual networks.

Social sexnetwork from Bear

If the respondent gave the name of a current primary partner who was not among the five partners, they were added to the roster as a sixth alter. Additionally, name interpreters were used to elicit additional information from the respondent about their named confidant and sex partner alters Schneider et al.

Since this data was collected, Facebook made changes to its API permissions that have subsequently made this method of data collection obsolete. Of the respondents retained at Wave 2 of the study, self-reported having an active Facebook profile, of whom consented to Facebook data collection L.

We restricted the Facebook friendship network to include only study participants and the Facebook friendship ties among them, as our primary Social sexnetwork from Bear was in learning how SNS connections, specifically among other YBMSM, impact their HIV-related behaviors. As such, should be interpreted with this caveat in mind. The main features of Facebook groups that we explored in this study were their primary subject matter and privacy status, which is the degree to which the group is visible to non-member Facebook users. While the subject matter of a Facebook group is suggestive of the interests of its members and what they talk about in these settings, the privacy status of a group speaks to the degree to which its members and their identities are protected from outside scrutiny.

Both features are believed to have implications for HIV care and sex behavior engagement L. To classify groups by their primary subject matter, we drew on two pieces of information — the name of a group and the brief group description provided on its profile. As not all groups provide a description, those without one were excluded from the analytic sample.

The subject were derived from a survey of the literature and from an environmental scan of a random sample of Facebook groups in our analytic sample. We used an iterative process of pilot-testing and refining the subject category codebook to ensure adequate capture of subjects represented.

In total, nine subject were identified and are described in Table 1. We then trained two student coders to code each Facebook group for its subject based on what they could derive from its name and description. First, they used a multiple choice selection scheme — i.

Social sexnetwork from Bear

This was followed by a forced choice selection of its primary subject. An inter-coder reliability test was performed on the primary subject coding for the full sample, after which all points of disagreement were resolved through consensus coding. Student coders achieved an inter-coder agreement of 0. The senior coder achieved an inter-coder agreement of 0. Receiving HIV care was measured by asking participants whether they received prevention or treatment services during their last visit to a health service provider.

Given CDC testing recommendations for men who have sex with men and at risk for HIV every 3—6 monthsa dummy variable was created, whereby regular testers were defined as those who had been tested at least twice since their last visit 9 months prior. Condomless sex was measured on the basis of frequency of condom use with named anal sex partners in the past 9 months. If the respondent indicated not always using condoms with any of their partners, they were coded as having had condomless sex.

Similarly, respondents were asked about their use of drugs to enhance their sexual experience or make sex easier to get. Respondents who indicated having done so with at least one partner were coded as having used sex-drugs. Group sex is a self-reported measure of whether or not a respondent indicated having engaged in sex with two or more partners at the same time at least once in the past 12 months Schneider et al. A series of compositional features of personal confidant and sex networks were Social sexnetwork from Bear as possible predictors of HIV prevention and risk outcomes.

Compositional measures related to sex partner characteristics include the proportion of partners who are perceived as HIV positive by the respondent and proportions of partners who were met through mutual friends, at physical LGBTQ social venues e. We pay attention to where or how individuals meet their partners to for differential HIV and STI risks associated with various methods for meeting partners Binson et al.

Regarding Facebook friendships, we investigate the effect of degree centrality, which corresponds here to the of friendship connections each participant has with other YBMSM study participants. We characterize a personal Facebook group network in terms of size, the presence or absence of each subject category, the of different subject i. The size of a Facebook group affiliation network was measured as the of Facebook groups — that Social sexnetwork from Bear a group description — to which an individual belonged.

Dichotomized measures of subject matter include belonging to at least one group that was thematically categorized as LGBTQ IdentitySexual Attractionand Chateach of which were related to primary prevention and risk outcomes in bivariate analyses not shown here. Finally, Facebook groups can be publicclosedor secretranked in order of decreasing visibility to non-member Facebook users.

Prior work has linked engagement in sexual risk behaviors to a preference for secret groups L. Therefore, we include an indicator variable for this level of privacy. Individual level factors include a continuous measure of age CDC, aan indicator for bisexual identity Millett et al. Also at this level, we for recreational use of marijuana Morgan et al.

At the structural level, we include binary measures of having health insurance coverage, experiencing homelessness or housing instability, and incarceration history. Date featured in this study comes from Wave 2 of the uConnect study. Of the respondents in Wave 2, self-reported having an active Facebook profile, of whom consented to Facebook data collection.

Social sexnetwork from Bear

As a key aim of the study was to examine the effects of Facebook network features relative to features of self-reported confidant and sex networks, the analytic sample was restricted to include only those who had at least one Facebook friend and belonged to at least one Facebook group among the participants who consented to the Facebook download.

These differences mean that should be interpreted with this caveat in mind. Descriptive statistics percentage for dichotomous variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables were calculated for all outcomes and covariates.

Social sexnetwork from Bear

Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations of network features with each prevention and sex behavior outcome, while also controlling for individual and structural factors. Respondents named, on average, 2.

Social sexnetwork from Bear

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Social sexnetwork from Bear